Infographic: 5 Key Book Publishing Paths

Understanding the 5 Key Book Publishing Paths by Jane Friedman

UPDATE: I have produced an updated version of this infographic, which is significantly different from this one.

One of the biggest questions for authors today is:

Should I traditionally publish or self-publish?

It’s an important question—one that tends to result in heated debate—but it’s becoming an increasingly confusing and complicated question to answer because:

  1. There are now many varieties of traditional publishing and self-publishing—with evolving models and varying contracts.
  2. You won’t find a universal, agreed-upon definition of what it means to “traditionally publish” or “self-publish.” 
  3. It’s not an either/or proposition. You can do both. (See this interview with CJ Lyons.)

I spend a lot of time at writers conferences trying to clarify the pros and cons among the different publishing paths and the growing number of services available to authors. There is no one path or service that’s right for everyone; you must understand and study the changing landscape and make a choice based on long-term career goals, as well as the unique qualities of your work—not to mention your own strengths and weaknesses.

With that in mind, I’ve developed an infographic (click to download as PDF) to describe what I see as the key 5 publishing paths, their value to authors, the potential pitfalls, and examples of each. These five paths are:

  1. Traditional publishing: where you query and submit to agents and editors in an effort to land a contract that pays an advance and royalties (and typically involves nationwide bookstore distribution).
  2. Partnership publishing: one might consider this the evolution of traditional publishing, where authors are positioned more as partners, receive higher royalties, but usually no advance.
  3. Fully-assisted publishing: the old “vanity” self-publishing model, where you write a check and get your book published without lifting a finger. I don’t recommend this, but it’s still a significant part of the self-publishing market, now dominated by Author Solutions.
  4. Do-it-yourself (DIY) publishing with a distributor: while this applies to either print or e-books, today this usually involves e-publishing your work (to reduce financial risk and investment involved with print), and using a service provider or distributor to reach all possible online retailers—and/or to provide some level of assistance.
  5. Do-it-yourself (DIY) direct publishing: when an author doesn’t put any middlemen between him and the retailer selling his books. Often, this option is combined with #4 above; for example, someone might sell direct through Amazon KDP, and complement it with distribution to all other retailers through Smashwords. This is possible because most distributors and online retailers of e-books work on a nonexclusive basis.

What about an agent’s role in these five models? Generally speaking, agents should serve as an author’s career manager and adviser, not as the author’s publisher. This is why I’ve included agent-assisted models in “special cases” below the chart. Still, though, when it comes to partnership publishing, agent-run outfits (e.g., Rogue Reader) are doing some of the most innovative work, and this only blurs the lines further.

You’ll notice I’ve indicated that, moving from left to right across the chart, an author gains more control over the process, undertakes more risk, and stands to earn more money. This is a generalization and may not hold true in every situation. For fully-assisted publishing in particular, one might argue this poses the highest risk and offers the least control. However, as a general rule, keep in mind that as one moves from the traditional models to DIY models, the author undertakes more risk, work, and responsibility, but stands to gain more financially if successful over the long term.

What is not really accounted for in this chart: Selling direct-to-consumer from your own website, or through other means (e.g., back-of-the-room sales). I’m also not addressing self-publishing that employs print runs (whether short digital runs or traditional print runs). While neither of these options is necessarily beyond the skill of a new author, it is a more advanced option that is beyond the scope of this chart.

Update (June 3): For some enlightened reaction to this chart, read Mick Rooney’s response, as well as my comments on it.

Feel free to download, print, and share this infograph wherever you like. I will keep developing it as the publishing landscape changes, so leave a comment if you have suggestions for how to make it more helpful.

For more information on getting published, visit these popular posts:

Upcoming Online Classes

Posted in Getting Published, Publishing Industry, Worksheets & Handouts and tagged , , , , .
Jane Friedman

Jane Friedman

Jane Friedman (@JaneFriedman) has 20 years of experience in the publishing industry, with expertise in digital media strategy for authors and publishers. She is the co-founder and editor of The Hot Sheet, the essential newsletter on the publishing industry for authors.

In addition to being a columnist for Publishers Weekly, Jane is a professor with The Great Courses, which released her 24-lecture series, How to Publish Your Book. She also has a book forthcoming from the University of Chicago Press, The Business of Being a Writer (2017).

Jane speaks regularly at conferences and industry events such as BookExpo America, Digital Book World, and the AWP Conference, and has served on panels with the National Endowment for the Arts and the Creative Work Fund. Find out more.

Join the conversation

83 Comments on "Infographic: 5 Key Book Publishing Paths"

Notify of
Sort by:   newest | oldest | most voted
Dan Blank

Love this Jane! Thanks.

Esther Aspling

This is great! I especially love the e-book tools on the bottom, I’ll be sharing this one!


Great compilation of material!
FYI – Don’t know if you’re aware but AuthorHouse now has ‘BookTango’ – direct answer to KDP, free e-book publishing with lots of distribution, including Amazon.

Editing in Paradise

Grateful for such a great package of information and clarity… that’s one of the clearest infographics I’ve seen…many thanks!

Lynne Griffin

Jane, you are so generous with you knowledge and insight. I will love to share this with writers who struggle with which path to take.

AJ Sikes

Brilliant! Thanks, Jane. Clears up a few questions I had just this morning.


Great information, Jane! Is there an alternative link to the pdf? I’m having trouble making the connection. Thanks.


[…] This infographic breaks down the key 5 publishing paths, their value to authors, the potential pitfalls, and examples of each.  […]

my celibate life

Really helpful, thanks for freely sharing such great information


Appreciate this information so much. Thanks.

Jami Gold

Fantastic resource, Jane! I’m sharing this *everywhere*. 🙂

I love the list of example companies at the bottom of each category too, so authors can get a better feel for each option. Thanks!

Neil G. Gordon

This is fantastic, Jane. I’ve already shared it with a client of mine looking to determine the best model for moving forward with a project.

June Cotner

I can’t figure out how to make the graphic larger so I can read it.

Laura Lee

I do think it’s important to add to this sentence “…undertakes more risk, and stands to earn more money”… but usually doesn’t. Although you can theoretically make the most money doing it without middlemen, the chances of getting anyone to pay attention to your book are greatly reduced. Unless you are famous already, the chances, a few outliers notwithstanding, of making any money are still slim to none.


I’m sharing this brilliant graphic all over the place. This visual alignment makes everything crystal clear, and I can’t think of a single base you don’t cover.


[…] Friedman (@JaneFriedman) has created an Infographic: 5 Key Book Publishing Paths that nicely consolidates a lot of information on methods of publishing and their characteristics, […]

Mahala Church

Excellent tool to use in my creative writing classes. The number one question on writers’ lips today, especially emerging writers. Thank you.

Julie Hedlund

EXCELLENT summary! Thanks so much!

Kristin Ammerman

Great information! Thanks, Jane!

Myra King

Thanks for this definitive explanation, Jane, now I know that Ginninderra Press (AUS) is a Partnership Publisher. They published my short story collection (print) in 2010. Although there is a limit to the size of what they publish I was not out of pocket in any way, and they are selective to what they choose.

A.C. James

Hrmmm… I thought KDP Select was only exclusive for the first 90 days. Then you can choose other platforms such as pubit (Nook), Smashwords, etc. Has that changed?


[…] for placing into pleasing, coherent graphical form at least most of the moment’s available pathways to publication. A blizzard of […]

Mark Linden O'Meara

Could also add Kindle’s comic creator, which can also be used for children’s books picture book layout as far as I know.

April Eberhardt

Hi, Jane! So glad we’re on the same page. Thanks for furthering the discussion. My SheWrites Press post last week spoke to these five paths from the POV of a “literary change agent.” I’ll be discussing these paths further with authors on June 7 in Chicago:, and again at digi.lit in San Francisco on June 29. So much to consider, so many personal factors to discuss as authors choose the right route. Thanks for capturing the objective factors so succinctly, and providing a good basis for ongoing discussion!


[…] to the rest at Jane Friedman and thanks to Ant for the […]


[…] In the future, she will update the infographic as the industry evolves.  Here’s more from Friedman’s blog post: […]

Mercy Loomis
Respectfully, I must disagree. These sorts of murky definitions (especially “partnership publishing”) are part of what confuses so many new authors into falling prey to vanity presses. I really, really think we need to define types of publishing by the one truly defining aspect of business: money. Traditional publishing is where all the proceeds flow to the publisher first, and the publisher then pays the author. This may or may not include an advance. The author pays the publisher nothing. Vanity press is where all the proceeds flow to the publisher first,(and in theory the publisher then pays the author,)… Read more »
Peter Turner

This is an interesting way to shape the options. Another way of putting it would be in terms of how likely it is you’ll make money; so, e.g., while traditional publishers offer less control for authors they also provide the most *likely* avenue for sales and revenue.

Another dynamic is that with traditional publishing the author’s control is variable usually based on expectation of sales–a bestselling author or hot prospect will have more “pull” than an author with a modest track record.


[…] Infographic: 5 Key Book Publishing Paths by Jane Friedman […]


[…] US-amerikanische (Self-)Publishing-Expertin Jane Friedman hat eine interessante Infografik zusammengestellt, in der 5 Wege, ein Buch bzw. eBook zu veröffentlichen, beschrieben werden. Am Anfang steht […]


[…] Infographic: 5 Key Book Publishing Paths | Jane Friedman. […]

Elisabeth Grace

This is a great breakdown. Thanks for posting!


[…] The other Jane Friedman had a very concise Infographic [on the] 5 Key Book Publishing Paths on her blog this week. You should head over there for the infographic, […]

Amanda McTigue

TED-level, Tufti-level information graphics — and so needed among the writers and authors in my community. Thank you so much for this service to us all.

Bob Tobin

hi . couldn’t open the pdf?? Thanks, BT


[…] Sin embargo, como bien explica Jane Friedman en el esquema que reproduzco más abajo, hay cinco caminos clave para publicar un libro: […]


[…] 5 Key Book Publishing Paths with awesome infographic from Jane Friedman […]


[…] that others want to share. Infographics are popular and shareable (check out Jane Friedman’s infographic on the five current book publishing options that I’ve seen shared on a few other sites). Piktochart will help you create those cool […]


All things about publishing at one place. amazing & useful effort well done.


[…] From self-publishing to traditional to everything in between, you have choices when it comes to publishing. There are some very loud voices out there on the Internet trying to convince you that their way is best. But these are personal and individualized decisions, and what works for someone else isn’t necessarily what will work for you. There’s not a “right” way, there’s only your way, which you might only find through experimentation and risk. (See Jane Friedman’s handy and detailed infographic in which she categorizes your choices into 5 Key Book Publishing Paths.) […]


Excellent resource. I do have new wordpress blog for sharing my knowledge on ePublishing.
BTW – Please take a look at it when you people find some time.

Mick Rooney

[…]A few weeks ago the industrious and expert publishing analyst, Jane Friedman, posted this very useful infographic titled ‘5 Key Publishing Paths’. Since then it has been reproduced many thousands of times by authors across social media channels, blogs and websites, but it has often been reposted and pointed to wrongly as if it represented the holy grail of publishing paths for authors. What some of those reposting the infographic (or didn’t much bother to read the full post) omitted was some of the most valuable pieces of information contained in Friedman’s original post.[…]


[…] an infographic of five different paths of least-to-most-risk for an author deciding how much risk to assume in publishing their work with some “agent-assisted models in ‘special cases’ below the […]


[…] I came across this infographic produced by Jane Friedman detailing the five main routes to book publishing. It’s very […]


[…] infographic on book publishing paths by Jane Friedman. You can find Jane’s full article here. I’ll be keeping this handy for referring to now and in the future. This is information to […]


[…] Sounds confusing, doesn’t it? It has been . . . until recently, when publishing pundit Jane Friedman shared this incredibly clear and helpful infographic on her blog with relevant commentary. […]


What classification would you give when an author is positioned as a partner with a publisher that does not accept all work, there is no advance and the author receives a higher royalty, but an author investment fee is required?


[…] Publish or self-publish? […]


[…] 5 Key Book Publishing Paths […]